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Masonry Wall Construction Free Ebook Download

Earth Masonry is the construction of engineered sandstone walls, as strong as concrete, that form the attractive sheltering enclosure for temperature-regulated, non-toxic homes and buildings.

Masonry Wall Construction free ebook download


Earth Masonry techniques have been used across the world for thousands of years to construct buildings and monuments. Some of the most well-known methods of earth masonry are: cob, rammed earth, and adobe block construction. These materials consist simply of sub-soil, aggregate, fiber, and optional additives.

At This Cob House, we are revitalizing these ancient building methods for use in modern construction. Earth masonry materials are perfect for our current times, and they offer some of the best solutions to our growing consumption and environmental problems.

TMS 604 covers the installation of cast stone assemblies and elements. Among the subjects covered are: installation; construction; submittals; materials; mortars; masonry; quality assurance; inspection; and tolerances.

This Standard provides minimum requirements for rating masonry walls for sound transmission class (STC) and outdoor-indoor transmission class (OITC) based on testing calibrated calculation procedures. Topics covered include reference standards, definitions and notations, materials, construction, and methods to STC and OITC rating for concrete masonry and clay masonry assemblies.

The Standard is written as a legal document in mandatory language so that it may form a part of a legally adopted building code. The Commentary presents background details, committee considerations, and research data used to develop the Standard. Separate equations for clay and concrete masonry walls are used to reflect the varying properties of these materials related to sound transmission.

Formed in 1977, The Masonry Society (TMS) is an educational, scientific, and technical society dedicated to the advancement of scientific, engineering, architectural, and construction knowledge of masonry.

The Society is a not-for-profit, membership driven organization that gathers, correlates, and disseminates information for the improvement of the design, construction, manufacture, use, and maintenance of masonry products and structures.

The e-book also discusses the evolution of masonry cavity wall designs and how to perform a large-scale building envelope study, to guide restoration and maintenance efforts at educational institutions or healthcare facilities.

The constituent masonry materials: concrete block, mortar, grout, and steel, each contribute to the performance of a masonry structure. Concrete masonry units provide strength, durability, fire resistance, energy efficiency, and sound attenuation to a wall system. In addition, concrete masonry units are manufactured in a wide variety of sizes, shapes, colors, and architectural finishes achieve any number of appearances and functions. The Concrete Masonry Shapes and Sizes Manual (ref. 4) illustrates a broad sampling of available units.

While mortar constitutes approximately 7% of a typical masonry wall area, its influence on the performance of a wall is significant. Mortar bonds the individual masonry units together, allowing them to act as a composite structural assembly. In addition, mortar seals joints against moisture and air leakage and bonds to joint reinforcement, anchors, and ties to help ensure all elements perform as a unit.

Grout is used to fill masonry cores or wall cavities to improve the structural performance and/or fire resistance of masonry. Grout is most commonly used in reinforced construction, to structurally bond the steel reinforcing bars to the masonry, allowing the two elements to act as one unit in resisting loads.

Most concrete masonry construction is mortared construction, i.e., units are bonded together with mortar. Varying the bond or joint pattern of a concrete masonry wall can create a wide variety of interesting and attractive appearances. In addition, the strength of the masonry can be influenced by the bond pattern. The most traditional bond pattern for concrete masonry is running bond, where vertical head joints are offset by half the unit length.

Excluding running bond construction, the most popular bond pattern with concrete masonry units is stack bond. Although stack bond typically refers to masonry constructed so that the head joints are vertically aligned, it is defined as masonry laid such that the head joints in successive courses are horizontally offset less than one quarter the unit length (ref. 2). TEK 14-6, Concrete Masonry Bond Patterns (ref. 3), shows a variety of bond patterns and describes their characteristics.

The alternative to mortared construction is dry-stacked (also called surface bonded) construction, where units are placed without any mortar, then both surfaces of the wall are coated with surface bonding material. Shims or ground units are used to maintain elevations. This construction method results in faster construction, and is less dependent on the skill of the laborer than mortared construction. In addition, the surface bonding coating provides excellent rain penetration resistance. TEK 3-5A, Surface Bonded Concrete Masonry Construction (ref. 9), contains further information on this method of construction.

In concrete masonry construction, site-mixing of mortar should ideally be performed in a mechanical mixer to ensure proper uniformity throughout the batch. Mortar materials should be placed in the mixer in a similar manner from batch to batch to maintain consistent mortar properties. Typically, about half the mixing water is added first into a mixer. Approximately half the sand is then added, followed by any lime. The cement and the remainder of the sand are then added. As the mortar is mixed and begins to stiffen, the rest of the water is added. Specification for Masonry Structures (ref. 7) requires that these materials be mixed for 3 to 5 minutes. If the mortar is not mixed long enough, the mortar mixture may not attain the uniformity necessary for the desired performance. A longer mixing time can increase workability, water retention, and board life.

The mortar should stick to the trowel when it is picked up, and slide off the trowel easily as it is spread. Mortar should also hold enough water so that the mortar on the board will not lose workability too quickly, and to allow the mason to spread mortar bed joints ahead of the masonry construction. The mortar must also be stiff enough to initially support the weight of the concrete masonry units.

Before building the block wall, the foundation must be level, and clean so that mortar will properly adhere. It must also be reasonably level. The foundation should be free of ice, dirt, oil, mud, and other substances that would reduce bond.

Cleaning is most effective when performed during the wall construction. Procedures such as skillfully cutting off excess mortar and brushing the wall clean before scaffolding is raised, help reduce the amount of cleaning required.

Masons will sometimes purposefully not spend extra time to keep the surface of the masonry clean during construction because more aggressive cleaning methods may have been specified once the wall is completed. This is often the case for grouted masonry construction where grout smears can be common and overall cleaning may be necessary.

While maintaining tight construction tolerances is desirable to the appearance, and potentially to the structural integrity of a building, it must be recognized that factors such as the condition of previous construction and nonmodularity of the project may require the mason to vary the masonry construction slightly from the intended plans or specifications. An example of this is when a mason must vary head or bed joint thicknesses to fit within a frame or other preexisting construction. The ease and flexibility with which masonry construction accommodates such change is one advantage to using masonry. However, masonry should still be constructed within certain tolerances to ensure the strength and appearance of the masonry is not compromised.

Specification for Masonry Structures (ref. 7) contains site tolerances for masonry construction which allow for deviations in the construction that do not significantly alter the structural integrity of the structure. Tighter tolerances may be required by the project documents to ensure the fi- nal overall appearance of the masonry is acceptable. If site tolerances are not being met or cannot be met due to previous construction, the Architect/Engineer should be notified.

Tolerances for plumbness of masonry walls, columns, and other building elements are shown in Figure 3. Masonry building elements should also maintain true to a line within the same tolerances as variations from plumb.

Readers will learn why drainage and ventilation planes must be used for adhered masonry walls in order to meet more stringent energy standards, and techniques to meet the National Energy Code of Canada for Buildings requirements using the trade-off compliance path.

Victorian homes are mostly constructed with solid masonry walls which are prone to rainwater penetration. The damp will eventually penetrate through to internal surfaces causing plaster to crumble and paper to bubble.

Victorian solid walls are less thermally efficient than modern cavity walls and are more prone to condensation. Condensation is a common construction problem often caused by poor ventilation. Moisture in the air is unable to escape the house but instead deposits on cold surfaces. Extra air bricks or window vents may correct the problem. 041b061a72


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